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Dec. 30, 2015
  1. Feldman M, et al. Diseases of the anorectum. In: Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. Accessed Sept. 17, 2015.
  2. Anal fissure. American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Accessed Sept. 17, 2015.
  3. Wald A, et al. ACG Clinical Guideline: Management of benign anorectal disorders. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2014; 109:1141.
  4. Perry WB, et al. Practice parameters for the management of anal fissures (3rd revision). Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. 2010; 53:1110.
  5. Nelson RL, et al. Non surgical therapy for anal fissure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Accessed Sept. 17, 2015.
  6. Breen E, et al. Anal fissure: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, prevention. Accessed Sept. 17, 2015.
  7. Breen E, et al. Anal fissure: Medical and surgical management. Accessed Sept. 17, 2015.
  8. Cook AJ. AllScripts EPSi. Rochester, Minn. July 15, 2015.