If it's suspected that you have a brain tumor, your doctor may recommend a number of tests and procedures, including:
- A neurological exam. A neurological exam may include, among other things, checking your vision, hearing, balance, coordination, strength and reflexes. Difficulty in one or more areas may provide clues about the part of your brain that could be affected by a brain tumor.
Imaging tests. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to help diagnose brain tumors. In some cases a dye may be injected through a vein in your arm during your MRI study.
A number of specialized MRI scan components — including functional MRI, perfusion MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy — may help your doctor evaluate the tumor and plan treatment.
Other imaging tests may include computerized tomography (CT) scan and positron emission tomography (PET).
- Tests to find cancer in other parts of your body. If it's suspected that your brain tumor may be a result of cancer that has spread from another area of your body, your doctor may recommend tests and procedures to determine where the cancer originated. One example might be a CT scan of the chest to look for signs of lung cancer.
Collecting and testing a sample of abnormal tissue (biopsy). A biopsy can be performed as part of an operation to remove the brain tumor, or a biopsy can be performed using a needle.
A stereotactic needle biopsy may be done for brain tumors in hard to reach areas or very sensitive areas within your brain that might be damaged by a more extensive operation. Your neurosurgeon drills a small hole into your skull. A thin needle is then inserted through the hole. Tissue is removed using the needle, which is frequently guided by CT or MRI scanning.
The biopsy sample is then viewed under a microscope to determine if it is cancerous or benign. This information is critical to establish a diagnosis and prognosis and, most importantly, in guiding treatment.
Brain tumor consultation at Mayo Clinic
Jan. 29, 2016
- What you need to know about brain tumors. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/brain. Accessed Oct. 4, 2013.
- Adult brain tumors treatment (PDQ): Health professional version. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/adultbrain/healthprofessional. Accessed Oct. 4, 2013.
- Daroff RB, et al. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 4, 2013.
- Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors treatment overview (PDQ): Health professional version. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/childbrain/healthprofessional. Accessed Oct. 4, 2013.
- Niederhuber JE, et al., eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 4, 2013.
- Armstrong TS, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medical therapy by patients with primary brain tumors. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports. 2008;8:264.
- Avastin (prescribing information). South San Francisco, Calif.: Genentech Inc.; 2013. http://www.avastin.com/patient/index.html. Accessed Oct. 4, 2013.
- Afinitor (prescribing information). East Hanover, N.J.: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp.; 2014. http://www.afinitor.com. Accessed Oct. 4, 2013.
- Temodar (prescribing information). Whitehouse Station, N.J.: Merck & Co. Inc.; 2013. http://www.temodar.com. Accessed Oct. 4, 2013.
- Taking time: Support for people with cancer. National Cancer Institute. http://cancer.gov/cancertopics/takingtime. Accessed Oct. 4, 2013.
- Brain SPOREs. National Cancer Institute. http://trp.cancer.gov/spores/brain.htm. Accessed Oct. 9, 2013.
- Golden AK. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 2, 2013.
- Pomeroy SL. Treatment and prognosis of medulloblastoma. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 9, 2015.
- Medulloblastoma. American Brain Tumor Association. http://www.abta.org/brain-tumor-information/types-of-tumors/medulloblastoma.html. Accessed Sept. 9, 2015.
- Millard NE, et al. Medullablastoma. Journal of Child Neurology. In press. Accessed Sept. 9, 2015.