Diagnosis

Conjoined twins can be diagnosed using standard ultrasound as early as the end of the first trimester. More-detailed ultrasounds and echocardiograms can be used about halfway through pregnancy to better determine the extent of the twins' connection and the functioning of their organs.

If an ultrasound detects conjoined twins, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan may be done. The MRI may provide greater detail about where the conjoined twins are connected and which organs they share.

April 01, 2016
References
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  2. Pierro A, et al. Classification and clinical evaluation. Seminars in Pediatric Surgery. 2015;24:207.
  3. D'Antonio F, et al. Early pregnancy assessment in multiple pregnancies. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2014;28:201.
  4. Kiely EM, et al. Planning the operation. Seminars in Pediatric Surgery. 2015;24:221.
  5. Spitz L. Ethics in the management of conjoined twins. Seminars in Pediatric Surgery. 2015;24:263.
  6. Lockwood CJ, et al. Monoamniotic twin pregnancy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 9, 2016.
  7. Mandy GT. Neonatal complications, outcome, and management of multiple births. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 9, 2016.
  8. Frequently asked questions. Pregnancy FAQ188. Multiple pregnancy. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. https://www.acog.org/-/media/For-Patients/faq188.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20160311T1419075111. Accessed March 11, 2016.
  9. Wick MJ (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 14, 2016.