Urinary tract infection (UTI)


Sex and aging


Painful intercourse (dyspareunia)

Painful urination (dysuria)

Urinary incontinence


Tests and diagnosis

Pap smear

Pelvic exam

A pelvic exam may be done as a part of a routine checkup to evaluate your gynecologic health or to help diagnose a medical condition.


Treatments and drugs

Cancer treatment for women: Possible sexual side effects

NuvaRing (vaginal ring)

April 23, 2016
  1. Atrophic vaginitis. First consult. Accessed Feb. 17, 2016.
  2. Bachman G, et al. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of vaginal atrophy. Accessed Feb. 17, 2016.
  3. Menopause. Merck Manual Professional Version. Accessed Feb. 17, 2016.
  4. Palma F, et al. Vaginal atrophy of women in postmenopause. Results from a multicentric observational study: The AGATA study. Maturitas.2016;83:40.
  5. Bachman G, et al. Treatment of vaginal atrophy. Accessed Feb. 17, 2016.
  6. Goldman L, et al., eds. Menopause. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. Accessed Feb. 17, 2016.
  7. Menopausal symptoms in depth. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Accessed Feb. 17, 2016.
  8. Thielen JM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Feb. 23, 2016.
  9. Portman DJ, et al. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: New terminology for vulvovaginal atrophy from the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health and The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2014;21:1063.