The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Formulations : Beta-carotene supplements are available in both oil matrix gelatin capsules and water-miscible forms. Some clinical trials have used water-miscible beta-carotene (10%) beadlets. The water miscible form seems to produce a significantly higher response in plasma beta-carotene (approximately 47% to 50%) than oil matrix gelatin capsules. Oral dosage is available in capsules (United States and Canada), tablets (United States and Canada), and chewable tablets (Canada).
Dietary intake : Consuming 5 servings of fruit and vegetables daily provides 6-8 milligrams of beta-carotene. Beta-carotene requires some dietary fat for absorption, but supplemental beta-carotene is similarly absorbed when taken with high-fat or low-fat meals. 1,800 micrograms of beta-carotene has been reported to maintain adequate vitamin A levels.
Consensus recommendations : The American Heart Association recommends obtaining antioxidants, including beta-carotene, from a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains rather than through supplements, until more information is available from randomized clinical trials. Similar statements have been released by the American Cancer Society, the World Cancer Research Institute in association with the American Institute for Cancer Research, and the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer. The Institute of Medicine has reviewed beta-carotene, but has not make recommendations for daily intake, citing lack of sufficient evidence. Routine use of beta-carotene supplements is not considered necessary in the general population.
Adults (18 years and older)
15-180 milligrams taken by mouth of supplemental beta-carotene has been studied for various indications.
Children (younger than 18 years)
There is insufficient available data to recommend high-dose oral (by mouth) supplementation in children.