Risk factorsBy Mayo Clinic staff
In developing nations, bladder stones are common in children — often because of dehydration, infection and a low-protein diet — but in other parts of the world, bladder stones occur primarily in older men. If you live in an industrialized country, these factors increase your risk:
- Your sex. Bladder stones occur primarily in men.
- Your age. In industrialized countries, bladder stones tend to occur in people age 30 and older, although younger people may also develop stones.
- Bladder outlet obstruction. The most common cause of bladder stones in men, bladder outlet obstruction refers to any condition that blocks the flow of urine from your bladder to the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of your body. Bladder outlet obstruction has many causes, but the most common is an enlarged prostate.
- Neurogenic bladder. Stroke, spinal cord injuries, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, a herniated disk and a number of other problems can damage the nerves that control bladder function. Some people with neurogenic bladder may also have an enlarged prostate or other type of bladder outlet obstruction, which further increases the risk of stones.
- Frequent bladder infections. Inflammation from chronic bladder infections can lead to the formation of bladder stones.
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