CausesBy Mayo Clinic staff
Babies get infant botulism after consuming spores of the bacteria, which then grow and multiply in their intestinal tracts and make toxins. The source of infant botulism may be honey, but it's more likely to be exposure to soil contaminated with the bacteria.
The source of foodborne botulism is often home-canned foods that are low in acid, such as green beans, corn and beets. A common source of the illness in Alaska is fermented seafood. However, the disease has also occurred from chili peppers, baked potatoes and oil infused with garlic. When you eat food containing the toxin, it disrupts nerve function, causing paralysis.
When C. botulinum bacteria get into a wound — possibly caused by an injury you might not notice — they can multiply and produce toxin. Wound botulism has increased in recent decades in people who inject heroin, which can contain spores of the bacteria.
Are there benefits to botulinum toxin?
You might wonder how something so toxic could ever be beneficial, but scientists have found that the paralyzing effect of botulinum toxin makes it useful in certain circumstances.
Botulinum toxin has been used to reduce facial wrinkles by preventing contraction of muscles beneath the skin and for medical conditions, such as eyelid spasms and severe underarm sweating. However, there have been rare occurrences of serious side effects, such as muscle paralysis extending beyond the treated area, with the use of botulinum toxin for medical reasons.
- Botulism. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/botulism/. Accessed March 20, 2012.
- Botulism. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. http://www.merck.com/mmpe/print/sec14/ch178/ch178c.html. Accessed March 20, 2012.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4. Accessed March 20, 2012.
- Manfredi M, et al. Dry mouth as an initial sign of food-borne botulism: A case report and review of the literature. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology. 2011;111:e15.
- Principles of home canning. United States Department of Agriculture. http://nchfp.uga.edu/publications/publications_usda.html. Accessed March 22, 2012.
- Chalk C, et al. Medical treatment for botulism. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. http://www.thecochranelibrary.com/view/0/index.html. Accessed March 20, 2012.
- Zhang JC, et al. Botulism, where are we now? Clinical Toxicology. 2010;48:867.
- Botox medication guide. Food and Drug Administration. www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/UCM176360.pdf. Accessed March 22, 2012.