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College depression: What parents need to know
College depression is a common problem. Understand why the transition to college makes young adults vulnerable to depression — and what you can do about it.By Mayo Clinic staff
Helping your child make the emotional transition to college can be a major undertaking. Know how to identify whether your child is having trouble dealing with this new stage of life — and what you can do to help.
What is college depression and why are college students vulnerable to it?
Depression is an illness that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. College depression isn't a clinical diagnosis. Instead, college depression is depression that begins during college.
College students face many challenges, pressures and anxieties that can cause them to feel overwhelmed. They might be living on their own for the first time and feeling homesick. They're also likely adapting to a new schedule and workload, adjusting to life with roommates, and figuring out how to belong. Money and intimate relationships can also serve as major sources of stress. Dealing with these changes during the transition from adolescence to adulthood can trigger or unmask depression during college in some young adults.
What are the impacts of college depression?
Depression during college has been linked to:
- Impaired academic performance
- Risky behaviors related to alcohol abuse, such as having unsafe sex
What are the signs that a student is dealing with college depression?
Many college students occasionally feel sad or anxious, but these emotions pass within a few days. Untreated depression persists and interferes with normal activities.
Signs and symptoms that a student might be experiencing depression during college include:
- Feelings of sadness or unhappiness
- Irritability or frustration, even over small matters
- Loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities
- Insomnia or excessive sleeping
- Changes in appetite or weight
- Agitation or restlessness
- Angry outbursts
- Slowed thinking, speaking or body movements
- Indecisiveness, distractibility and decreased concentration
- Fatigue, tiredness and loss of energy
- Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, fixation on past failures, or self-blame when things aren't going right
- Trouble thinking, concentrating, making decisions and remembering things
- Frequent thoughts of death, dying or suicide
- Crying spells for no apparent reason
- Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches
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- Mental health services and choosing a college: Striking a balance. National Alliance on Mental Illness. http://www.nami.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Find_Support/NAMI_on_Campus1/Mental_Health_and_Choosing_a_College/Mental_Health_and_Choosing_a_College.htm. Accessed July 1, 2013.
- Taliaferro LA, et al. Associations between physical activity and reduced rates of hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among college students. Journal of American College Health. 2009;57:427.
- Depression in teens. Mental Health America. http://www.nmha.org/index.cfm?objectid=C7DF950F-1372-4D20-C8B5BD8DFDD94CF1. Accessed July 1, 2013.
- Depressive disorders. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://www.psychiatryonline.org. Accessed July 1, 2013.
- College age students. American Psychiatric Association. http://www.healthyminds.org/More-Info-For/College-Age-Students.aspx. Accessed July 1, 2013.
- The depressed child. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. http://www.aacap.org/App_Themes/AACAP/docs/facts_for_families/04_the_depressed_child.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2013.