A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only.
Domestic violence against women: Recognize patterns, seek helpBy Mayo Clinic staff
Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/domestic-violence/WO00044
Staying healthy (23)
- Cosmetic surgery: What to know beforehand
- Vaccines for adults: Which do you need?
- Cancer prevention: 7 tips to reduce your risk
- see all in Staying healthy
Dental care (7)
- Oral health: Brush up on dental care basics
- Oral health: A window to your overall health
- Calcium and calcium supplements: Achieving the right balance
- see all in Dental care
Skin care (17)
- Sunless tanning: A safe alternative to sunbathing
- Best sunscreen: Understand sunscreen options
- Skin care: 5 tips for healthy skin
- see all in Skin care
Nail care (1)
- Fingernails: Do's and don'ts for healthy nails
Eye care (9)
- Eye injury: Tips to protect vision
- Contact lenses: What to know before you buy
- LASIK eye surgery
- see all in Eye care
- Sleep aids: Understand over-the-counter options
- Napping: Do's and don'ts for healthy adults
- Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep
- see all in Sleep
Mental health (11)
- Empty nest syndrome: Tips for coping
- Self-esteem: 4 steps to feel better about yourself
- Self-esteem check: Too low, too high or just right?
- see all in Mental health
Healthy relationships (9)
- Domestic violence against men: Know the signs
- Domestic violence against women: Recognize patterns, seek help
- Forgiveness: Letting go of grudges and bitterness
- see all in Healthy relationships
Healthy at work (12)
- Travel workout: Fitness tips for business travelers
- Workplace exercises: How to burn calories at work
- Desk stretches: How-to video collection
- see all in Healthy at work
Domestic violence against women: Recognize patterns, seek help
Domestic violence is a serious threat for many women. Know the signs of an abusive relationship and how to leave a dangerous situation.By Mayo Clinic staff
Your partner apologizes and says the hurtful behavior won't happen again — but you fear it will. At times you wonder whether you're imagining the abuse, yet the emotional or physical pain you feel is real. If this sounds familiar, you might be experiencing domestic violence.
Recognize domestic violence
Domestic violence — also called domestic abuse, battering or intimate partner violence — occurs between people in an intimate relationship. Domestic violence can take many forms, including emotional, sexual and physical abuse and threats of abuse. Men are sometimes abused by partners, but domestic violence is most often directed toward women. Domestic violence can happen in heterosexual or same sex relationships.
It might not be easy to identify domestic violence at first. While some relationships are clearly abusive from the outset, abuse often starts subtly and gets worse over time. You might be experiencing domestic violence if you're in a relationship with someone who:
- Calls you names, insults you or puts you down
- Prevents you from going to work or school
- Stops you from seeing family members or friends
- Tries to control how you spend money, where you go, what medicines you take or what you wear
- Acts jealous or possessive or constantly accuses you of being unfaithful
- Gets angry when drinking alcohol or using drugs
- Threatens you with violence or a weapon
- Hits, kicks, shoves, slaps, chokes or otherwise hurts you, your children or your pets
- Forces you to have sex or engage in sexual acts against your will
- Blames you for his or her violent behavior or tells you that you deserve it
- Portrays the violence as mutual and consensual
If you're lesbian, bisexual or transgender, you might also be experiencing domestic violence if you're in a relationship with someone who:
- Threatens to tell friends, family, colleagues or community members your sexual orientation or gender identity
- Tells you that authorities won't help a lesbian, bisexual or transgender person
- Tells you that leaving the relationship means you're admitting that lesbian, bisexual or transgender relationships are deviant
- Says women can't be violent
- Justifies abuse by telling you that you're not "really" lesbian, bisexual or transgender
Pregnancy, children and domestic violence
Sometimes domestic violence begins — or increases — during pregnancy. During this perilous time, your health and the baby's health are at risk. The danger continues after the baby is born. Even if your child isn't abused, simply witnessing domestic violence can be harmful. Children who grow up in abusive homes are more likely to be abused and have behavioral problems than are other children. As adults, they're more likely to become abusers or think abuse is a normal part of a relationship. You might worry that seeking help will further endanger you and your child or that it might break up your family, but it's the best way to protect your child — and yourself.
Break the cycle
If you're in an abusive situation, you might recognize this pattern:
- Your abuser threatens violence.
- Your abuser strikes.
- Your abuser apologizes, promises to change and offers gifts.
- The cycle repeats itself.
Typically the violence becomes more frequent and severe over time.
The longer you stay in an abusive relationship, the greater the toll on your self-esteem. You might become depressed and anxious. You might begin to doubt your ability to take care of yourself or wonder if the abuse is your fault. You might feel helpless or paralyzed. If you're an older woman who has health problems, you might feel dependent upon an abusive partner. If you're in a same sex relationship, you might be less likely to seek help after an assault if you don't want to disclose your sexual orientation. If you've been sexually assaulted by another woman, you might also fear that you won't be believed. Still, the only way to break the cycle of domestic violence is to take action — and the sooner the better.
Start by telling someone about the abuse, whether it's a friend, loved one, health care provider or other close contact. At first, you might find it hard to talk about the abuse. But you'll also likely feel relief and receive much-needed support.
Create a safety plan
Leaving an abuser can be dangerous. Consider taking these precautions:
- Call a women's shelter or domestic violence hotline for advice. Make the call at a safe time — when the abuser isn't around — or from a friend's house or other safe location.
- Pack an emergency bag that includes items you'll need when you leave, such as extra clothes and keys. Leave the bag in a safe place. Keep important personal papers, money and prescription medications handy so that you can take them with you on short notice.
- Know exactly where you'll go and how you'll get there.
Protect your communication and location
An abuser can use technology to monitor your telephone and online communication and to track your physical location. If you're concerned for your safety, seek help. To maintain your privacy:
- Use phones cautiously. Your abuser might intercept calls and listen to your conversations. He or she might use caller ID, check your cellphone or search your phone billing records to see your complete call and texting history.
- Use your home computer cautiously. Your abuser might use spyware to monitor your emails and the websites you visit. Consider using a computer at work, the library or at a friend's house to seek help.
- Remove GPS devices from your vehicle. Your abuser might use a GPS device to pinpoint your location.
- Frequently change your email password. Choose a password that would be impossible for your abuser to guess.
- Clear your viewing history. Follow your browser's instructions to clear any record of websites or graphics you've viewed.
Where to find help
In an emergency, call 911 — or your local emergency number or law enforcement agency. The following resources also can help:
- Someone you trust. Turn to a friend, loved one, neighbor, co-worker, or religious or spiritual adviser for support.
- National Domestic Violence Hotline: 800-799-SAFE or 800-799-7233. Call the hotline for crisis intervention and referrals to resources, such as women's shelters.
- Your health care provider. Doctors and nurses will treat injuries and can refer you to safe housing and other local resources.
- A local women's shelter or crisis center. Shelters and crisis centers typically provide 24-hour emergency shelter, as well as advice on legal matters and advocacy and support services.
- A counseling or mental health center. Counseling and support groups for women in abusive relationships are available in most communities.
- A local court. Your district court can help you obtain a restraining order that legally mandates the abuser to stay away from you or face arrest. Local advocates may be available to help guide you through the process.
It can be hard to recognize or admit that you're in an abusive relationship — but help is available. Remember, no one deserves to be abused.
- Understanding intimate partner violence. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/dvp/ipv_factsheet.pdf. Accessed Feb. 21, 2011.
- Violence against women: What is abuse? U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.4woman.gov/violence/signs/. Accessed Feb. 21, 2011.
- Safety planning list. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.4woman.gov/violence/planning/safetyplanninglist.pdf. Accessed Feb. 21, 2011.
- Violence against women: Domestic and intimate partner violence. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.4woman.gov/violence/types/domestic.cfm. Accessed Feb. 21, 2011.
- Violence against women: Court order of protection. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.4woman.gov/violence/prevent/civil.cfm. Accessed Feb. 21, 2011.
- Domestic violence. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp083.cfm. Accessed Feb. 21, 2011.
- Domestic violence. American Psychiatric Association. http://www.healthyminds.org/Main-Topic/Domestic-Violence.aspx. Accessed Feb. 21, 2011.
- McHugh MC, et al. Intimate partner violence: New directions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2006;1087:121.
- Raising children to resist violence: What you can do. American Psychological Association. http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/resist-violence.aspx. Accessed Feb. 21, 2011.
- AAMFT consumer update: Domestic violence. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. http://www.aamft.org/imis15/Content/Consumer_Updates/Domestic_Violence.aspx. Accessed Feb. 21, 2011.
- Internet safety. National Coalition Against Domestic Violence. http://www.ncadv.org/protectyourself/InternetSafety_121.html. Accessed Feb. 21, 2011.
- Southworth C, et al. Intimate partner violence, technology and stalking. Violence Against Women. 2007;13:842.
- Torpy JM. Intimate partner violence. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2008;300:754.
- Pitt EL, et al. Violence and trauma: Recognitions, recovery, and prevention. In: Makadon HJ, et al. The Fenway Guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Health. Philadelphia, Pa.: American College of Physicians; 2008:253.
- Issues: Domestic violence. National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. http://www.ncavp.org/issues/DomesticViolence.aspx. Accessed Feb. 21, 2011.
- Bonomi AE, et al. Medical and psychosocial diagnoses in women with a history of intimate partner violence. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2009;169:1692.
- Sillman JS. Diagnosing, screening, and counseling for domestic violence. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed Feb. 21, 2011.