Timolol and Hydrochlorothiazide (Oral Route)
Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-information/DR602453
US Brand Names
Timolol and hydrochlorothiazide combination is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). High blood pressure adds to the workload of the heart and arteries. If it continues for a long time, the heart and arteries may not function properly. This can damage the blood vessels of the brain, heart, and kidneys, resulting in a stroke, heart failure, or kidney failure. High blood pressure may also increase the risk of heart attacks. These problems may be less likely to occur if blood pressure is controlled .
Timolol is a beta-blocker. It works by affecting the response to some nerve impulses in certain parts of the body, like the heart. As a result, the heart beats slower and decreases the blood pressure. When the blood pressure is lowered, the amount of blood and oxygen is increased to the heart .
Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic (water pill). It reduces the amount of water in the body by increasing the flow of urine, which helps lower the blood pressure .
This medicine is available only with your doctor's prescription .
This product is available in the following dosage forms:
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:
Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.
Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of timolol and hydrochlorothiazide combination in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established .
Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatrics-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of timolol and hydrochlorothiazide combination in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related liver, kidney, or heart problems, which may require an adjustment of dosage in patients receiving timolol and hydrochlorothiazide combination .
|All Trimesters||C||Animal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR no animal studies have been conducted and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women.|
Studies suggest that this medication may alter milk production or composition. If an alternative to this medication is not prescribed, you should monitor the infant for side effects and adequate milk intake.
Studies in women suggest that this medication poses minimal risk to the infant when used during breastfeeding.
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
- Arsenic Trioxide
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
- Enalapril Maleate
- Flufenamic Acid
- Ibuprofen Lysine
- Magnesium Salicylate
- Mefenamic Acid
- Niflumic Acid
- Salicylic Acid
- St John's Wort
- Tiaprofenic Acid
Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.
Other Medical Problems
The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:
- Angina (severe chest pain)—May provoke chest pain if stopped too quickly .
- Anuria (not able to form urine) or
- Asthma or
- Bradycardia (slow heartbeat) or
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), severe or
- Heart block or
- Heart failure—Should not use in patients with these conditions .
- Blood vessel disease (especially blood vessels in the brain) or
- Gout or
- High cholesterol or
- Hyperuricemia (high uric acid in the blood) or
- Hypochloremia (low chloride in the blood) or
- Hypokalemia (low potassium in the blood) or
- Hypomagnesemia (low magnesium in the blood) or
- Hyponatremia (low sodium in the blood) or
- Parathyroid disease or
- Stroke, history of or
- Systemic lupus erythematosus—Use with caution. This medicine may make these conditions worse .
- Diabetes or
- Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or
- Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)—May cover up some of the signs and symptoms of these diseases, such as a fast heartbeat .
- Kidney disease, severe or
- Liver disease—Use with caution. The effects may be increased because of slower removal of the medicine from the body .
- Lung disease (e.g. bronchitis, emphysema)—May cause difficulty with breathing in patients with this condition .
- Myasthenia gravis—May worsen symptoms of this condition, such as muscle weakness .
- Sympathectomy—Use with caution. The effects of this medicine may be increased .
In addition to the use of this medicine, treatment for your high blood pressure may include weight control and changes in the types of foods you eat, especially foods high in sodium. Your doctor will tell you which of these are most important for you. You should check with your doctor before changing your diet .
Many patients who have high blood pressure will not notice any signs of the problem. In fact, many may feel normal. It is very important that you take your medicine exactly as directed and that you keep your appointments with your doctor even if you feel well .
Remember that this medicine will not cure your high blood pressure, but it does help control it. You must continue to take it as directed if you expect to lower your blood pressure and keep it down. You may have to take high blood pressure medicine for the rest of your life. If high blood pressure is not treated, it can cause serious problems such as heart failure, blood vessel disease, stroke, or kidney disease .
Do not interrupt or stop taking this medicine without first checking with your doctor. Your doctor may want you to gradually reduce the amount you are taking before stopping it completely. Some conditions may become worse when the medicine is stopped suddenly, which can be dangerous .
The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.
The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.
- For oral dosage form (tablets):
- For high blood pressure:
- Adults—One tablet two times a day, or two tablets once a day. Your doctor may adjust your dose if needed.
- Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor .
- For high blood pressure:
If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.
Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.
Keep out of the reach of children.
Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.
Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.
It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure this medicine is working properly and to check for unwanted effects .
This medicine may cause heart failure in some patients. Check with your doctor right away if you are having chest pain or discomfort; dilated neck veins; extreme fatigue; irregular breathing; an irregular heartbeat; shortness of breath; swelling of the face, fingers, feet, or lower legs; weight gain; or wheezing .
This medicine may cause changes in your blood sugar levels. Also, this medicine may cover up signs of low blood sugar, such as a rapid pulse rate. Check with your doctor if you have these problems or if you notice a change in the results of your blood or urine sugar tests .
Make sure any doctor or dentist who treats you knows that you are using this medicine. You may need to stop using this medicine several days before having surgery or medical tests .
Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:Less common
- Blurred vision
- Chest pain or discomfort
- Difficult or labored breathing
- Dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up from a lying or sitting position suddenly
- Lightheadedness, dizziness, or fainting
- Noisy breathing
- Shortness of breath
- Slow or irregular heartbeat
- Tightness in chest
- Unusual tiredness or weakness
- Bloody or cloudy urine
- Dilated neck veins
- Extreme fatigue
- Fast heartbeat
- Irregular breathing
- Pain in lower back or side
- Small clicking, bubbling, or rattling sounds in the lung when listening with a stethoscope
- Swelling of face, fingers, feet, or lower legs
- Weight gain
- Ankle, knee, or great toe joint pain
- Fixed position of eye
- Inability to speak
- Joint stiffness or swelling
- Muscle cramps
- Severe numbness, especially on one side of the face or body
- Severe or sudden headache
- Slurred speech
- Temporary blindness
- Weakness in arm and/or leg on one side of the body, sudden and severe
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:Less common
- Lack or loss of strength
- Acid or sour stomach
- Darkening of skin color
- Decreased interest in sexual intercourse
- Difficulty having a bowel movement (stool)
- Difficulty in moving
- Having a hard time focusing or doing everyday activities
- Inability to have or keep an erection
- Joint pain
- Loss in sexual ability, desire, drive, or performance
- Muscle aching, pains, or stiffness
- Sleepiness or unusual drowsiness
- Stomach discomfort, upset, or pain
- Swollen joints
- Trouble sleeping
- Unable to sleep
Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.