Acetaminophen and Codeine (Oral Route)
Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-information/DR603233
Acetaminophen and Codeine (Oral Route)Drug Information provided by: Micromedex
US Brand Names
Acetaminophen and codeine oral suspension is used to relieve mild to moderate pain. The oral tablets are used to relieve mild to moderately severe pain.
Acetaminophen is used to relieve pain and reduce fever in patients. It does not become habit-forming when taken for a long time. But acetaminophen may cause other unwanted effects when taken in large doses, including liver damage.
Codeine belongs to the group of medicines called narcotic analgesics (pain medicines). It acts on the central nervous system (CNS) to relieve pain.
When codeine is used for a long time, it may become habit-forming, causing mental or physical dependence. However, people who have continuing pain should not let the fear of dependence keep them from using narcotics to relieve their pain. Mental dependence (addiction) is not likely to occur when narcotics are used for this purpose. Physical dependence may lead to withdrawal side effects if treatment is stopped suddenly. However, severe withdrawal side effects can usually be prevented by gradually reducing the dose over a period of time before treatment is stopped completely.
This medicine is available only with your doctor's prescription.
This product is available in the following dosage forms:
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:
Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.
Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of acetaminophen and codeine oral suspension in children younger than 3 years of age. Safety and efficacy have not been established.
No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of acetaminophen and codeine tablets in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established.
No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of acetaminophen and codeine combination in geriatric patients.
|All Trimesters||C||Animal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR no animal studies have been conducted and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women.|
There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
- Chloral Hydrate
- Morphine Sulfate Liposome
- Sodium Oxybate
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.
Using this medicine with any of the following is usually not recommended, but may be unavoidable in some cases. If used together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use this medicine, or give you special instructions about the use of food, alcohol, or tobacco.
Using this medicine with any of the following may cause an increased risk of certain side effects but may be unavoidable in some cases. If used together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use this medicine, or give you special instructions about the use of food, alcohol, or tobacco.
Other Medical Problems
The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:
- Addison's disease (adrenal gland problem) or
- Alcohol abuse, history of or
- Breathing problems (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], cor pulmonale, hypoxia) or
- CNS depression or
- Drug dependence, especially narcotic abuse or dependence, or history of or
- Enlarged prostate (BPH, prostatic hypertrophy) or
- Hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid) or
- Problems with passing urine—Use with caution. May increase risk for more serious side effects.
- Allergy to sulfites or
- Asthma—Tylenol® with codeine tablets contains sodium metabisulfite, which can cause allergic reactions in patients with these conditions.
- Brain tumor or
- Head injuries or
- Increased pressure in the head—Some of the side effects of codeine can cause serious problems in people who have these medical problems.
- Kidney disease or
- Liver disease—Use with caution. The effects may be increased because of slower removal of the medicine from the body.
- Respiratory depression (hypoventilation or slow breathing)—Use with caution. May make this condition worse.
- Stomach or digestion problems—This medicine may mask the diagnosis of these conditions.
Take this medicine only as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered. This is especially important for elderly patients, who may be more sensitive to the effects of pain medicines. If too much of this medicine is taken for a long time, it may become habit-forming (causing mental or physical dependence) or cause an overdose. Large amounts of acetaminophen may cause liver damage.
Shake the oral suspension well before each use. Measure the medicine with a marked measuring spoon, oral syringe, or medicine cup. The average household teaspoon may not hold the right amount of liquid.
This combination medicine contains acetaminophen (Tylenol®). Carefully check the labels of all other medicines you are using, because they may also contain acetaminophen. It is not safe to use more than 4 grams (4,000 milligrams) of acetaminophen in one day (24 hours).
The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.
The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.
- For oral dosage form (suspension):
- For mild to moderate pain:
- Adults—15 milliliters (mL) or 1 tablespoonful every 4 hours as needed.
- Children 7 to 12 years of age—10 mL (2 teaspoonfuls) 3 or 4 times per day.
- Children 3 to 6 years of age—5 mL (1 teaspoonful) 3 or 4 times per day.
- Children younger than 3 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
- For mild to moderate pain:
- For oral dosage form (tablets):
- For mild to moderately severe pain:
- Adults—15 to 60 milligrams (mg) of codeine and 300 to 1000 mg of acetaminophen every 4 hours as needed. Your doctor may increase your dose as needed. However, the dose is usually not more than 360 mg of codeine and 4000 mg of acetaminophen per 24 hours.
- Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
- For mild to moderately severe pain:
If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.
Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.
Keep out of the reach of children.
Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.
Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.
It is very important that your doctor check the progress of you or your child while you are taking this medicine. This will allow your doctor to see if the medicine is working properly and to decide if you or your child should continue to take it.
It is against the law and dangerous for anyone else to use your medicine. Keep your unused medicine in a safe and secure place. People who are addicted to drugs might want to steal this medicine.
This medicine will add to the effects of alcohol and other CNS depressants (medicines that can make you drowsy or less alert). Some examples of CNS depressants are antihistamines or medicine for allergies or colds; sedatives, tranquilizers, or sleeping medicine; other prescription pain medicine or narcotics; medicine for seizures or barbiturates; muscle relaxants; or anesthetics, including some dental anesthetics. Also, there may be a greater risk of liver damage if you drink three or more alcoholic beverages while you are taking acetaminophen. Do not drink alcoholic beverages, and check with your doctor before taking any of these medicines while you are using this medicine.
This medicine may be habit-forming. If you feel that the medicine is not working as well, do not use more than your prescribed dose.
Check with your doctor right away if you have pain or tenderness in the upper stomach; pale stools; dark urine; loss of appetite; nausea; unusual tiredness or weakness; or yellow eyes or skin. These could be symptoms of a serious liver problem.
This medicine may cause a serious type of allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Stop using this medicine and call your doctor right away if you have a rash, itching, hoarseness, trouble breathing, trouble swallowing, or any swelling of your hands, face, or mouth while you are using this medicine.
This medicine may make you dizzy, drowsy, or lightheaded. Make sure you know how you react to this medicine before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are dizzy or not alert.
Using narcotics for a long time can cause severe constipation. To prevent this, your doctor may direct you to take laxatives, drink a lot of fluids, or increase the amount of fiber in your diet. Be sure to follow the directions carefully, because continuing constipation can lead to more serious problems.
For patients taking a codeine-containing medicine or any other narcotic analgesics (e.g., dihydrocodeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and pentazocine):
- Contact your doctor right away if you have extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing. These symptoms may indicate that you are an "ultra-rapid metabolizer of codeine". Ultra-rapid metabolizers change codeine to morphine more quickly and completely than other people. As a result, there is too much morphine in the body and more side effects of morphine than usual.
Do not change your dose or suddenly stop using this medicine without first checking with your doctor. Your doctor may want you to gradually reduce the amount you are using before stopping it completely. This may help prevent worsening of your condition and reduce the possibility of withdrawal symptoms, such as abdominal or stomach cramps, anxiety, fever, nausea, runny nose, sweating, tremors, or trouble with sleeping.
Using this medicine while you are pregnant may cause neonatal withdrawal syndrome in your newborn babies. Tell your doctor right away if your child has the following symptoms: abnormal sleep pattern, diarrhea, high-pitched cry, irritability, shakiness or tremor, weight loss, vomiting, or failure to gain weight.
Before you have any medical tests, tell the medical doctor in charge that you or your child are taking this medicine. The results of certain tests may be affected by this medicine.
Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines, especially those containing acetaminophen (Tylenol (R)), and herbal or vitamin supplements.
Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:More common
- Difficult or troubled breathing
- Irregular, fast or slow, or shallow breathing
- Pale or blue lips, fingernails, or skin
- Shortness of breath
- Black, tarry stools
- Bleeding gums
- Blood in the urine or stools
- Cough or hoarseness
- Difficulty with swallowing
- Fast heartbeat
- Fever with or without chills
- General feeling of tiredness or weakness
- Lower back or side pain
- Painful or difficult urination
- Pinpoint red spots on the skin
- Puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
- Skin rash
- Sore throat
- Sores, ulcers, or white spots on the lips or in the mouth
- Tightness in the chest
- Unusual bleeding or bruising
- Unusual tiredness or weakness
Get emergency help immediately if any of the following symptoms of overdose occur:Symptoms of overdose
- Abdominal or stomach pain
- Bloody or cloudy urine
- Constricted, pinpoint, or small pupils (black part of the eye)
- Dark urine
- Increased sweating
- Light-colored stools
- Loss of appetite
- Loss of consciousness
- Sudden decrease in the amount of urine
- Unpleasant breath odor
- Vomiting of blood
- Yellow eyes or skin
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:More common
- Relaxed and calm
- Difficulty having a bowel movement (stool)
- False or unusual sense of well-being
Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.