Risk factorsBy Mayo Clinic staff
Factors that increase your risk of gastritis include:
- Bacterial infection. People infected with Helicobacter pylori can experience gastritis — most commonly chronic gastritis. Half the world's population is thought to be infected with this bacterium, which is thought to pass from person to person. But the majority of those infected don't experience any complications of H. pylori infection. In some people, H. pylori may break down the stomach's inner protective coating, causing changes in the stomach's lining. The reason why some people experience complications from H. pylori infection, such as gastritis and ulcers, and others don't isn't clear. However, doctors believe vulnerability to the bacterium could be inherited or it could be caused by lifestyle choices, such as smoking and high stress levels.
- Regular use of pain relievers. Common pain relievers, such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox), can cause both acute gastritis and chronic gastritis. Using these pain relievers regularly or taking too much of these drugs may reduce a key substance that helps preserve the protective lining of your stomach. Stomach problems are less likely to develop if you take pain relievers only occasionally.
- Older age. Older adults have an increased risk of gastritis because the stomach lining tends to thin with age and because older adults are more likely to have H. pylori infection or autoimmune disorders than younger people are.
- Excessive alcohol use. Alcohol can irritate and erode your stomach lining, which makes your stomach more vulnerable to digestive juices. Excessive alcohol use is more likely to cause acute gastritis.
- Stress. Severe stress due to major surgery, injury, burns or severe infections can cause acute gastritis.
- Bile reflux disease. Bile — a substance that helps you digest fats — is produced in your liver and stored in your gallbladder. When it's released from the gallbladder, bile travels to your small intestine through a series of thin tubes. Normally, a ring-like sphincter muscle (pyloric valve) prevents bile from flowing into your stomach from your small intestine. But if this valve doesn't work properly, or if it has been surgically removed, bile can flow into your stomach, leading to gastritis.
- Your own body attacking cells in your stomach. Called autoimmune gastritis, this type of gastritis occurs when your body attacks the cells that make up your stomach lining. This produces a reaction by your immune system that can wear away at your stomach's protective barrier. Autoimmune gastritis is more common in people with other autoimmune disorders, including Hashimoto's disease and type 1 diabetes. Autoimmune gastritis can also be associated with vitamin B-12 deficiency.
- Other diseases and conditions. Gastritis may be associated with other medical conditions, including HIV/AIDS, Crohn's disease and parasitic infections.
- Lee EL, et al. Gastritis and gastropathies. In: Feldman M, et al. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2010. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4160-6189-2..X0001-7--TOP&isbn=978-1-4160-6189-2&about=true&uniqId=229935664-2192. Accessed March 9, 2011.
- American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Bethesda, Md.: American College of Gastroenterology. http://www.acg.gi.org/physicians/guidelines/ManagementofHpylori.pdf. Accessed March 10, 2011.
- Gastritis. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/gastritis/index.htm. Accessed March 9, 2011.
- Guidelines for the management of dyspepsia. Bethesda, Md.: American College of Gastroenterology. http://www.acg.gi.org/physicians/guidelines/dyspepsia.pdf. Accessed March 10, 2011.
- H. pylori and peptic ulcers. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/hpylori/index.htm. Accessed March 9, 2011.
- FDA drug safety communication: Possible increased risk of fractures of the hip, wrist and spine with the use of proton pump inhibitors. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/ucm213206.htm. Accessed March 10, 2011.