ComplicationsBy Mayo Clinic staff
- Cancer. Cervical cancer has been closely linked with genital HPV infection. Certain types of HPV also are associated with cancer of the vulva, cancer of the anus and cancer of the penis. Human papillomavirus infection doesn't always lead to cancer, but it's still important for women, particularly if you've been infected with higher risk types of HPV, to have regular Pap tests.
- Problems during pregnancy. Genital warts may cause problems during pregnancy. Warts could enlarge, making it difficult to urinate. Warts on the vaginal wall may reduce the ability of vaginal tissues to stretch during childbirth. Rarely, a baby born to a mother with genital warts may develop warts in his or her throat. The baby may need surgery to prevent airway obstruction.
- Habif TP. Genital warts. In: Habif TP. Clinical Dermatology: A Color Guide to Diagnosis and Therapy. 5th ed. Edinburgh, U.K.; New York, N.Y.: Mosby Elsevier; 2010. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-7234-3541-9..00020-1&isbn=978-0-7234-3541-9&sid=1095050809&type=bookPage§ionEid=4-u1.0-B978-0-7234-3541-9..00020-1--s0020&uniqId=229999267-4#4-u1.0-B978-0-7234-3541-9..00020-1--s0020. Accessed Dec. 13, 2010.
- Genital HPV infection: Fact sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/HPV/STDFact-HPV.htm. Accessed Dec. 13, 2010.
- Breen E, et al. Condylomata acuminata (anogenital warts). http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed Dec. 13, 2010.
- Douglas JM. Papillomavirus. In: Goldman L, et al. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/191371208-2/0/1492/0.html#. Accessed Dec. 13, 2010.
- Making sense of your Pap and HPV test results. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/pap/default.htm. Accessed Dec. 14, 2010.
- Special procedures: The Pap test. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp085.cfm. Accessed Dec. 15, 2010.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, et al. Recommendations on the use of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in males — Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendations and Reports. 2011:60;1705.