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Human growth hormone (HGH): Does it slow aging?By Mayo Clinic staff
Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/growth-hormone/HA00030
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Human growth hormone (HGH): Does it slow aging?
Human growth hormone is described by some as the key to slowing the aging process. Before you sign up, get the facts — and understand proven ways to promote healthy aging.By Mayo Clinic staff
Growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland — a pea-sized structure at the base of the brain — to fuel childhood growth and help maintain tissues and organs throughout life. Beginning in middle age, however, the pituitary gland slowly reduces the amount of growth hormone it produces. This natural slowdown has prompted an interest in the use of synthetic human growth hormone (HGH) to stave off the realities of old age.
If you're skeptical, good for you. There's little evidence to suggest human growth hormone can help otherwise healthy adults regain youth and vitality.
Who needs to take human growth hormone?
Synthetic human growth hormone, which must be injected, is available only by prescription. It's approved to treat adults who have true growth hormone deficiency — not the expected decline in growth hormone due to aging.
Growth hormone deficiency in adults is rare and may be caused by pituitary adenoma — a tumor on the pituitary gland — or treatment of the adenoma with surgery or radiotherapy. For adults who have a growth hormone deficiency, injections of human growth hormone can:
- Increase bone density
- Increase muscle mass
- Decrease body fat
- Increase exercise capacity
Human growth hormone is also approved to treat AIDS- or HIV-related muscle wasting.
What can human growth hormone do for otherwise healthy adults?
Studies of healthy adults taking human growth hormone are limited. Although it appears that human growth hormone injections can increase muscle mass and reduce the amount of body fat in healthy older adults, the increase in muscle doesn't translate into increased strength. It isn't clear if human growth hormone may provide other benefits to healthy adults.
What are the risks of taking human growth hormone if you don't need it?
Human growth hormone may cause a number of side effects for healthy adults, including:
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Swelling in the arms and legs
- Joint pain
- Muscle pain
- For men, enlargement of breast tissue (gynecomastia)
Human growth hormone may also contribute to conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.
Some research suggests that side effects of human growth hormone treatments may be more likely in older adults than in younger adults. Because the studies of healthy adults taking human growth hormone have been short term, it isn't clear whether the side effects could eventually dissipate or become worse.
Does human growth hormone come in pill form?
Some websites sell a pill form of human growth hormone and claim that it produces results similar to the injected form of the drug. Sometimes these dietary supplements are called human growth hormone releasers. There's no proof that these claims are true. Likewise, there's no proof that homeopathic remedies claiming to contain human growth hormone work.
What's the bottom line?
If you have specific concerns about aging, ask your doctor about proven ways to improve your health. Remember, healthy lifestyle choices — such as eating a healthy diet and including physical activity in your daily routine — can help you feel your best as you get older.
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- Giannoulis MG, et al. The effects of growth hormone and/or testosterone on whole body protein kinetics and skeletal muscle gene expression in healthy elderly men: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2008;93:3066.
- Blackman MR. Use of growth hormone secretagogues to prevent or treat the effects of aging: Not yet ready for prime time. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2008;149:677.
- Olshansky SJ, et al. New developments in the illegal provision of growth hormone for "anti-aging" and bodybuilding. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2008;299:2792.
- Can we prevent aging? National Institute on Aging. http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/E50A04DC-BDA8-4CF3-AE7E-82C2B5F94C90/15120/CanWePreventAging.pdf. Accessed Nov. 3, 2010.
- Import alert no. 66-71: Detention without physical examination of human growth hormone (HGH), also known as somatropin. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cms_ia/importalert_204.html. Accessed Nov. 3, 2010.
- American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Guidelines for use of growth hormone in clinical practice. Endocrine Practice. 2009;15:1.