ComplicationsBy Mayo Clinic staff
An incompetent cervix poses risks for your pregnancy — particularly during the second trimester — including:
- Premature birth
- Pregnancy loss
If your baby is born prematurely, he or she might have health concerns — including low birth weight, breathing difficulties and underdeveloped organs. Children who are born prematurely also have a higher risk of learning disabilities and behavioral problems. The risks are greatest for babies born before 32 weeks of pregnancy.
- Johnson JR, et al. Cervical insufficiency. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Jan. 31, 2012.
- Fox NS, et al. Cervical cerclage: A review of the evidence. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. 2008;63:58.
- Gabbe SG, et al. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2007. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-443-06930-7..50027-X&isbn=978-0-443-06930-7&uniqId=301267705-3. Accessed Nov. 14, 2011.
- Annum EA, et al. Health disparities in risk for cervical insufficiency. Human Reproduction. 2010;25:2894.
- Jakobsson M, et al. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: Reproductive effects of treatment. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Feb. 8, 2012.
- Preterm labor. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/publications/faq/faq087.cfm. Accessed Sept. 22, 2011.
- Preterm labor and birth. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/Preterm_Labor_and_Birth.cfm. Accessed Feb. 9, 2012.
- Tita ATN. Intraamniotic infection (chorioamnionitis). http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Feb. 10, 2012.
- Berghella V. Transvaginal ultrasound assessment of the cervix and prediction of spontaneous preterm birth. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Feb. 10, 2012.
- Marc I, et al. Mind-body interventions during pregnancy for preventing or treating women's anxiety (review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007559.pub2/abstract. Accessed Feb. 13, 2012.
- Tsekiri O'Brien E, et al. Women's views of high risk pregnancy under threat of preterm birth. Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare. 2010;1:79.
- Yang M, et al. Music therapy to relieve anxiety in pregnant women on bedrest: A randomized controlled trial. 2009;34:316.
- Frequently asked questions. Number 87. Preterm labor. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/publications/faq/faq087.cfm. Accessed Feb. 13, 2012.
- Zaichkin J. Newborn Intensive Care: What Every Parent Needs to Know. 3rd ed. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Sheridan Books; 2009:77.
- Healthy pregnancy: Staying healthy and safe. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/you-are-pregnant/staying-healthy-safe.cfm. Accessed Feb. 13, 2012.
- Norwitz ER. Prevention of spontaneous preterm birth. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Feb. 13, 2012.
- Makena (prescribing information). Bridgeton, Mo.: Ther-Rx Corp.; 2011. http://www.makena.com/media/PDFs/full-pi.pdf. Accessed Feb. 13, 2012.
- FDA approves drug to reduce risk of preterm birth in at-risk pregnant women. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm242234.htm. Accessed Feb. 13, 2012.
- Berghella V, et al. Patients with prior second-trimester loss: Prophylactic cerclage or serial transvaginal sonograms? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2002;187:747.
- Baramki TA. Hysterosalpinography. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Feb. 13, 2012.
- Harms RW (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Feb. 15, 2012.