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Infant development: Milestones from 4 to 6 monthsBy Mayo Clinic staff
Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/infant-development/FL00099
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Infant development: Milestones from 4 to 6 months
From ages 4 to 6 months, your baby becomes more aware of his or her surroundings. Infant development milestones include rolling over, clapping hands and babbling.By Mayo Clinic staff
The newborn days are behind you. As your baby becomes more alert and mobile, each day will bring exciting new adventures. Every experience — from cuddling before nap time to listening to a sibling's chatter — will help your baby learn more about the world.
Expect your baby to grow and develop at his or her own unique pace. Consider these general infant development milestones as your baby's strengths and preferences begin to emerge.
What to expect
As your baby becomes more aware of the surrounding world, he or she will begin exploring. From ages 4 to 6 months, your baby is likely to enjoy:
- Evolving motor skills. Your baby's arms and legs probably wiggle and kick more purposefully now. Soon you may notice your baby rocking on his or her stomach and eventually rolling over. As your baby gains muscle strength, he or she will have better head control. Most babies this age raise their heads when lying facedown. They might even try to push themselves up or bear weight on their legs. By age 6 months, many babies begin sitting alone. Creeping or crawling typically follows.
- Improving hand-eye coordination. Your baby will probably grasp your finger, a rattle or a soft object. Anything within reach is likely to end up in your baby's mouth. You may notice your baby pulling objects closer with a raking motion of the hands. Soon your baby may start transferring objects from one hand to the other.
- Clearer vision. Your baby will begin to distinguish between strange and familiar faces. You might notice your baby concentrating on a toy, studying fingers and toes, or staring at his or her reflection. Most babies this age turn their heads toward bright colors. If you roll a ball across the floor, your baby will probably turn his or her head to follow the action.
- Babbling and other new sounds. Babies this age often begin to babble, squeal, gurgle and laugh. Your baby may respond to and imitate your facial expressions and sounds. He or she may babble and then pause, waiting for you to respond. As your baby's memory and attention span increase, he or she will begin to pick out the components of your speech and hear the way words form sentences. Your baby might even recognize his or her name. You may notice changes in inflection or tone as your baby babbles and coos.
Promoting your baby's development
At this age, learning and play are inseparable. It doesn't take expensive educational toys or intense effort, however, to capture your baby's attention. To promote infant development:
- Talk to your baby. Your baby is probably too young to understand specific words, but easy conversation can lay the groundwork for language development. Your tone of voice can communicate ideas and emotions as well. Ask questions and respond to your baby's coos and gurgles. Describe what you see, hear and smell around the house, outdoors, and when you're out and about. Use simple words that apply to your baby's everyday life.
- Change positions. Lay your baby on his or her tummy for a few minutes, as long as an attentive adult supervises. Hold a colorful toy or make an interesting noise to encourage your baby to pick up his or her head or practice rolling over. Hold your baby's hands while he or she is lying down and say, "Are you ready to stand up? Here we go!" Count to three as you gently pull your baby to a standing position. When your baby's ready, try a sitting position. Hold your baby or use pillows for support.
- Offer simple toys. Babies this age often enjoy colorful toys, especially those that make sounds. Try a musical toy, a small rattle with a handle, a soft doll or a sturdy book. Household items such as plastic bowls and measuring cups may be a hit as well. Avoid toys with small parts. To help your baby focus, put out only one or two toys at a time. Place one toy slightly out of reach to encourage your baby to stretch and creep. Shake a rattle behind your baby's head and let him or her turn and grab it. Let your baby watch his or her movements in a mirror.
- Read to your baby. Your baby won't grasp the plot, but that's OK. Reading to a baby promotes speech and thought development. Your baby will soak in your words and might even mimic the sounds you make. Start with books featuring large, brightly colored pictures. Describe what's happening on each page. Point to and name common objects.
- Play favorite games. Cover your face with your hands, then remove your hands and say, "Peekaboo, I see you!" Play patty-cake. Ask, "Where are your toes?" Then touch your child's toes and say, "Here are your toes!" Hide one of your baby's toys with the corner of a blanket and encourage him or her to find it.
- Take time to cuddle. Balance stimulation with plenty of quiet time. Gentle caresses and tender kisses can help your baby feel safe, secure and loved. When you hold or rock your baby, talk quietly or sing lullabies or other soothing songs.
- Turn on the tunes. Music can help soothe, entertain and teach your baby. Try calming lullabies, upbeat children's songs, classical music or your own favorites.
- Let your baby set the pace. When your baby turns away, closes his or her eyes, or gets fussy, take a break. Even babies need space. Get to know your baby's unique personality, temperament, likes and dislikes. Responding to your baby's needs will help you continue to build your baby's trust in you.
When something's not right
Your baby may reach some developmental milestones ahead of schedule and lag behind a bit on others. This is normal, and usually no cause for concern. It's a good idea, however, to be aware of the signs or symptoms of a problem.
Consult your baby's doctor if you're concerned about your baby's development or your baby:
- Has stiff or tight muscles
- Seems extremely floppy
- Reaches with only one hand
- Hasn't shown any improvement in head control
- Doesn't respond to sounds or visual cues, such as loud noises or bright lights
- Doesn't reach for objects or put objects in his or her mouth
- Doesn't attempt to roll over or sit
- Has an eye or eyes that consistently turn in or out
- Doesn't laugh or squeal
Trust your instincts. The earlier a problem is detected, the earlier it can be treated. Above all, delight in your baby's discoveries and abilities.
- Everyday ways to support your baby's and toddler's early learning. Zero to Three. http://www.zerotothree.org/site/DocServer/early_learning_handout.pdf?docID=3081&AddInterest=1153. Accessed Feb. 28, 2011.
- Development through your child's eyes: Birth to 8 months. Zero to Three. http://www.zerotothree.org/site/PageServer?pagename=ter_key_childdevt_devt08&AddInterest=1153. Accessed Feb. 28, 2011.
- A child becomes a reader: Proven ideas from research for parents. National Institute for Literacy. http://lincs.ed.gov/publications/pdf/reading_pre.pdf. Accessed Feb. 28, 2011.
- Positive parenting tips for healthy child development: Infants (0-1 year old). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/child/documents/0-1YearOldsPositiveParenting.pdf. Accessed Feb. 28, 2011.
- Shelov SP, et al. Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5. 5th ed. New York, N.Y.: Bantam Books; 2009:217.