PreventionBy Mayo Clinic staff
Reduce your risk of cirrhosis
Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver, and it increases the risk of liver cancer. You can reduce your risk of cirrhosis if you:
- Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all. If you choose to drink alcohol, limit the amount you drink. For women, this means no more than one drink a day. For men, this means no more than two drinks a day.
- Maintain a healthy weight. If your current weight is healthy, work to maintain it by choosing a healthy diet and exercising most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, reduce the number of calories you eat each day and increase the amount of exercise you do. Aim to lose weight slowly — 1 or 2 pounds (0.5-1 kilograms) each week.
- Use caution with chemicals. Follow instructions on chemicals you use at home or at work.
Get vaccinated against hepatitis B
You can reduce your risk of hepatitis B by receiving the hepatitis B vaccine, which provides more than 90 percent protection for both adults and children. The vaccine can be given to almost anyone, including infants, older adults and those with compromised immune systems.
Take measures to prevent hepatitis C
No vaccine for hepatitis C exists, but you can reduce your risk of infection.
- Know the health status of any sexual partner. Don't engage in unprotected sex unless you're absolutely certain your partner isn't infected with HBV, HCV or any other sexually transmitted disease. If you don't know the health status of your partner, use a condom every time you have sexual intercourse.
- Don't use intravenous (IV) drugs, but if you do, use a clean needle. The best way to protect yourself from HCV is to not inject drugs. But if that isn't an option for you, make sure any needle you use is sterile, and don't share it. Contaminated drug paraphernalia is a common cause of hepatitis C infection. Take advantage of needle-exchange programs in your community and consider seeking help for your drug use.
- Seek safe, clean shops when getting a piercing or tattoo. Needles that may not be properly sterilized can spread the hepatitis C virus. Before getting a piercing or tattoo, check out the shops in your area and ask staff about their safety practices. If employees at a shop refuse to answer your questions or don't take your questions seriously, take that as a sign that the facility isn't right for you.
Ask your doctor about liver cancer screening
For the general population, screening for liver cancer hasn't been proved to reduce the risk of dying of liver cancer, so it isn't generally recommended. The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases recommends liver cancer screening for those thought to have a high risk, including people who have:
- Hepatitis B and one or more of the following apply: are an Asian male older than 40, Asian female older than 50, or African and older than 20; have liver cirrhosis; or have a family history of liver cancer
- Liver cirrhosis from other causes, such as an autoimmune disease or excessive alcohol use
- Hepatitis C infection
- An inherited form of hemochromatosis
- Primary biliary cirrhosis
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Discuss the pros and cons of screening with your doctor. Together you can decide whether screening is right for you based on your risk. Screening typically involves an ultrasound exam once or twice each year.
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- What you need to know about liver cancer. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/liver/allpages/print. Accessed May 20, 2011.
- Weber S, et al. Liver and bile duct cancer. In: Abeloff MD, et al. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2008:1569.
- Hepatobiliary cancer. Fort Washington, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed May 20, 2011.
- Hepatitis B FAQs for the public. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/B/bFAQ.htm. Accessed May 20, 2011.
- Hepatitis C FAQs for the public. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/C/cFAQ.htm. Accessed May 20, 2011.
- Moynihan TJ (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. June 7, 2011.
- Cirrhosis. National Institute for Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/cirrhosis/. Accessed June 8, 2011.