Mediterranean diet: A heart-healthy eating planBy Mayo Clinic staff
Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/mediterranean-diet/CL00011
Nutrition basics (20)
- Dietary fiber: Essential for a healthy diet
- Artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes
- Added sugar: Don't get sabotaged by sweeteners
- see all in Nutrition basics
Healthy diets (12)
- DASH diet: Tips for dining out
- DASH diet: Tips for shopping and cooking
- DASH diet: Healthy eating to lower your blood pressure
- see all in Healthy diets
Healthy cooking (14)
- Meatless meals: The benefits of eating less meat
- Healthy cooking for 1 or 2
- Beans and other legumes: Types and cooking tips
- see all in Healthy cooking
Healthy menus and shopping strategies (13)
- Free range and other meat and poultry terms
- Cuts of beef: A guide to the leanest selections
- Mayo Clinic Healthy Weight Pyramid: A sample menu
- see all in Healthy menus and shopping strategies
Nutritional supplements (3)
- Herbal supplements: What to know before you buy
- Calcium and calcium supplements: Achieving the right balance
- Supplements: Nutrition in a pill?
Mediterranean diet: A heart-healthy eating plan
The heart-healthy Mediterranean is a healthy eating plan based on typical foods and recipes of Mediterranean-style cooking. Here's how to adopt the Mediterranean diet.By Mayo Clinic staff
If you're looking for a heart-healthy eating plan, the Mediterranean diet might be right for you. The Mediterranean diet incorporates the basics of healthy eating — plus a splash of flavorful olive oil and perhaps even a glass of red wine — among other components characterizing the traditional cooking style of countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea.
Most healthy diets include fruits, vegetables, fish and whole grains, and limit unhealthy fats. While these parts of a healthy diet remain tried-and-true, subtle variations or differences in proportions of certain foods may make a difference in your risk of heart disease.
Benefits of the Mediterranean diet
Research has shown that the traditional Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of heart disease. In fact, an analysis of more than 1.5 million healthy adults demonstrated that following a Mediterranean diet was associated with a reduced risk of death from heart disease and cancer, as well as a reduced incidence of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends the Mediterranean diet as an eating plan that can help promote health and prevent disease. And the Mediterranean diet is one your whole family can follow for good health.
Key components of the Mediterranean diet
The Mediterranean diet emphasizes:
- Eating primarily plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes and nuts
- Replacing butter with healthy fats, such as olive oil
- Using herbs and spices instead of salt to flavor foods
- Limiting red meat to no more than a few times a month
- Eating fish and poultry at least twice a week
- Drinking red wine in moderation (optional)
The diet also recognizes the importance of being physically active, and enjoying meals with family and friends.
Focus on fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains
The Mediterranean diet traditionally includes fruits, vegetables and grains. For example, residents of Greece average six or more servings a day of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables.
Grains in the Mediterranean region are typically whole grain and usually contain very few unhealthy trans fats, and bread is an important part of the diet. However, throughout the Mediterranean region, bread is eaten plain or dipped in olive oil — not eaten with butter or margarine, which contains saturated or trans fats.
Nuts are another part of a healthy Mediterranean diet. Nuts are high in fat, but most of the fat is healthy. Because nuts are high in calories, they should not be eaten in large amounts — generally no more than a handful a day. For the best nutrition, avoid candied or honey-roasted and heavily salted nuts.
Choose healthier fats
The focus of the Mediterranean diet isn't on limiting total fat consumption, but rather on choosing healthier types of fat. The Mediterranean diet discourages saturated fats and hydrogenated oils (trans fats), both of which contribute to heart disease.
The Mediterranean diet features olive oil as the primary source of fat. Olive oil is mainly monounsaturated fat — a type of fat that can help reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels when used in place of saturated or trans fats. "Extra-virgin" and "virgin" olive oils (the least processed forms) also contain the highest levels of protective plant compounds that provide antioxidant effects.
Canola oil and some nuts contain the beneficial linolenic acid (a type of omega-3 fatty acid) in addition to healthy unsaturated fat. Omega-3 fatty acids lower triglycerides, decrease blood clotting, and are associated with decreased incidence of sudden heart attacks, improve the health of your blood vessels, and help moderate blood pressure. Fatty fish — such as mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna and salmon — are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Fish is eaten on a regular basis in the Mediterranean diet.
What about wine?
The health effects of alcohol have been debated for many years, and some doctors are reluctant to encourage alcohol consumption because of the health consequences of excessive drinking. However, alcohol — in moderation — has been associated with a reduced risk of heart disease in some research studies.
The Mediterranean diet typically includes a moderate amount of wine, usually red wine. This means no more than 5 ounces (148 milliliters) of wine daily for women of all ages and men older than age 65 and no more than 10 ounces (296 milliliters) of wine daily for younger men. More than this may increase the risk of health problems, including increased risk of certain types of cancer.
If you're unable to limit your alcohol intake to the amounts defined above, if you have a personal or family history of alcohol abuse, or if you have heart or liver disease, refrain from drinking wine or any other alcohol.
Putting it all together
The Mediterranean diet is a delicious and healthy way to eat. Many people who switch to this style of eating say they'll never eat any other way. Here are some specific steps to get you started:
- Eat your veggies and fruits — and switch to whole grains. Avariety of plant foods should make up the majority of your meals. They should be minimally processed — fresh and whole are best. Include veggies and fruits in every meal and eat them for snacks as well. Switch to whole-grain bread and cereal, and begin to eat more whole-grain rice and pasta products. Keep baby carrots, apples and bananas on hand for quick, satisfying snacks. Fruit salads are a wonderful way to eat a variety of healthy fruit.
- Go nuts. Nuts and seeds are good sources of fiber, protein and healthy fats. Keep almonds, cashews, pistachios and walnuts on hand for a quick snack. Choose natural peanut butter, rather than the kind with hydrogenated fat added. Try blended sesame seeds (tahini) as a dip or spread for bread.
- Pass on the butter. Try olive or canola oil as a healthy replacement for butter or margarine. Lightly drizzle it over vegetables. After cooking pasta, add a touch of olive oil, some garlic and green onions for flavoring. Dip bread in flavored olive oil or lightly spread it on whole-grain bread for a tasty alternative to butter. Try tahini as a dip or spread for bread too.
- Spice it up. Herbs and spices make food tasty and can stand in for salt and fat in recipes.
- Go fish. Eat fish at least twice a week. Fresh or water-packed tuna, salmon, trout, mackerel and herring are healthy choices. Grill, bake or broil fish for great taste and easy cleanup. Avoid breaded and fried fish.
- Rein in the red meat. Limit red meat to no more than a few times a month. Substitute fish and poultry for red meat. When choosing red meat, make sure it's lean and keep portions small (about the size of a deck of cards). Also avoid sausage, bacon and other high-fat, processed meats.
- Choose low-fat dairy. Limit higher fat dairy products, such as whole or 2 percent milk, cheese and ice cream. Switch to skim milk, fat-free yogurt and low-fat cheese.
- Traditional Mediterranean diet. Oldways Preservation Trust. http://www.oldwayspt.org/traditional-mediterranean-diet. Accessed March 23, 2013.
- Estruch R, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. New England Journal of Medicine. In press. Accessed March 23, 2013.
- Sofi F, et al. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status: Meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008;337:a1344.
- Mitrou PN, et al. Mediterranean dietary pattern and prediction of all-cause mortality in a U.S. population. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2007;167:2461.
- AHA Scientific Statement: Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006. Circulation 2006;114:82.
- Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAs2010-PolicyDocument.htm. Accessed March 23, 2013.
- Van de Laar RJ, et al. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern in early life is associated with lower arterial stiffness in adulthood: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2013;273:79.
- Mediterranean diet pyramid. Oldways Preservation Trust. http://oldwayspt.org/resources/heritage-pyramids/mediterranean-pyramid/overview. Accessed March 22, 2013.
- Meet the fats. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/FatsAndOils/MeettheFats/Meet-the-Fats_UCM_304495_Article.jsp. Accessed March 23, 2013.
- AHA Scientific Advisory: Wine and your heart. Circulation 2001;103:472.
- Cicerale S, et al. Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2009;49:218
- Nelson JK (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 22, 2013.
- Rethinking drinking: Alcohol and your health. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/RethinkingDrinking/Rethinking_Drinking.pdf. Accessed April 4, 2013.