Risk factorsBy Mayo Clinic staff
Risk factors associated with dysmenorrhea include:
- Age younger than 20
- Early onset of puberty (age 11 or younger)
- Heavy bleeding during periods (menorrhagia)
- Irregular menstrual bleeding (metrorrhagia)
- Never having delivered a baby
- Family history of dysmenorrhea
- Morrow C, et al. Dysmenorrhea. Primary Care Clinics in Office Practice. 2009;36:19.
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- Smith RP, et al. Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea in adult women. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed March 24, 2011.
- Dysmenorrhea. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp046.cfm. Accessed March 24, 2011.
- Smith RP, et al. Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in adult women. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed March 24, 2011.
- Rainone F. Dysmenorrhea. In: Rakel D. Integrative Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-2/0/1494/0.html. Accessed March 24, 2011.
- Gallenberg MM (expert opinion). Rochester, Minn. March 26, 2011.