CausesBy Mayo Clinic staff
Neurofibromatosis is caused by genetic defects (mutations) that either are passed on by a parent or occur spontaneously at conception. Each form of neurofibromatosis is caused by mutations in different genes.
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)
The NF1 gene is located on chromosome 17. Normally, this gene produces a protein called neurofibromin, which is abundant in nervous system tissue and helps regulate cell growth. A mutation of the NF1 gene causes a loss of neurofibromin, which allows cells to grow uncontrolled.
Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2)
A similar problem occurs with NF2. The NF2 gene is located on chromosome 22, which produces a protein called merlin. A mutation of the NF2 gene causes loss of merlin, which also leads to uncontrolled cell growth.
Schwannomatosis may be associated with a mutation of the SMARCB1 gene located on chromosome 22. Other gene mutations may be involved in schwannomatosis. The occurrence of schwannomatosis may be inherited or may be sporadic (spontaneous), but these are not known yet.
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