Tests and diagnosisBy Mayo Clinic staff
Your doctor may ask you questions or have you complete a questionnaire to get a sense of how dependent you are on nicotine. The more cigarettes you smoke each day and the sooner you smoke after awakening, the more dependent you are. Knowing your degree of dependence will help your doctor determine the best treatment plan for you.
In diagnosing nicotine dependence, your doctor may consider criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) published by the American Psychiatric Association. This manual is used by mental health providers to help them diagnose conditions and by insurance companies to reimburse for treatment.
- Cigarette smoking. American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/tobaccocancer/cigarettesmoking/cigarette-smoking-toc. Accessed April 15, 2013.
- Guide to quitting smoking. American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/healthy/stayawayfromtobacco/guidetoquittingsmoking/index. Accessed April 15, 2013.
- Questions about smoking, tobacco and health. American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/tobaccocancer/questionsaboutsmokingtobaccoandhealth/questions-about-smoking-tobacco-and-health-intro-and-background. Accessed April 15, 2013.
- DrugFacts: Cigarettes and other tobacco products. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/cigarettes-other-tobacco-products. Accessed April 15, 2013.
- Horn K, et al. Effects of physical activity on teen smoking cessation. Pediatrics. 2011:128:e801.
- Schroeder SA. New evidence that cigarette smoking remains most important health hazard. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2013;368:389.
- Child and teen tobacco use. American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/tobaccocancer/childandteentobaccouse/child-and-teen-tobacco-use-child-and-teen-tobacco-use. Accessed April 15, 2013.
- Rigotti NA, et al. Benefits of smoking cessation. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 15, 2013.
- Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: A report of the surgeon general — Executive summary. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2012/index.htm. Accessed April 16, 2013.
- Danovitch I. The clinical assessment and treatment of nicotine dependence. Focus. 2011;9:15.
- Frequently asked questions about quitlines. Smokefree.gov. http://www.smokefree.gov/quitlines-faq.aspx. Accessed April 15, 2013.
- Quit guide: Clearing the air. Smokefree.gov. http://www.smokefree.gov/quit-guide.aspx. Accessed April 15, 2013.
- Find tools to help you quit. Smokefree.gov. http://www.smokefree.gov/tools.aspx. Accessed April 15, 2013.
- A report on the surgeon general: How tobacco smoking causes disease — The biology and behavioral basis for smoking-attributable disease fact sheet. Surgeongeneral.gov. www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/tobaccosmoke/factsheet.html. Accessed April 18, 2013.
- Ebbert JO (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 23, 2013.
- Nicotine replacement therapy labels may change. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm345087.htm. Accessed April 26, 2013.
- Hurt RD (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 15, 2013.