CausesBy Mayo Clinic staff
CLICK TO ENLARGE
|Pneumonia and your lungs|
Pneumonia has many possible causes. The most common are bacteria and viruses in the air we breathe. Your body usually prevents these germs from infecting your lungs. But sometimes these germs can overpower your immune system, even if your health is generally good.
Pneumonia is classified according to the types of germs that cause it, and where you acquired the infection.
Community-acquired pneumonia is the most common type of pneumonia. It occurs outside of hospitals and other health care facilities, and may be caused by:
- Bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacterial community-acquired pneumonia can occur on its own or after you have a cold or respiratory flu. This type of pneumonia often affects one area (lobe) of the lung, a condition called lobar pneumonia.
- Bacteria-like organisms, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which typically produce milder signs and symptoms than do other types of pneumonia. "Walking pneumonia," a term used to describe pneumonia that isn't severe enough to require bed rest, may result from Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
- Viruses, including some that are the same type of viruses that cause colds and flu. Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in children younger than 2 years. Viral pneumonia is usually mild. But viral pneumonia caused by certain influenza viruses, such as sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), can become very serious.
- Fungi, which can be found in soil and in bird droppings. This type of pneumonia is most common in people with an underlying health problem or weakened immune system and in people who have inhaled a large dose of the organisms.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia is a bacterial infection that occurs in people 48 hours or more after being hospitalized for another condition. Hospital-acquired pneumonia can be serious because the bacteria causing it may be more resistant to antibiotics.
People who are on a breathing machine (ventilator), often used in intensive care units, are at higher risk of this type of pneumonia.
Health care-acquired pneumonia
Health care-acquired pneumonia is a bacterial infection that occurs in people who are living in long-term care facilities or have been treated in outpatient clinics, including kidney dialysis centers. Like hospital-acquired pneumonia, health care-acquired pneumonia can be caused by bacteria more resistant to antibiotics.
Aspiration pneumonia occurs when you inhale food, drink, vomit or saliva into your lungs. This aspiration may happen if something disturbs your normal gag reflex, such as a brain injury, swallowing problem, or excessive use of alcohol or drugs.
- Pneumonia. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.1.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu/. Accessed April 17, 2013.
- AskMayoExpert. What diagnostic evaluation should be done in an outpatient with suspected community acquired pneumonia? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2013.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=9112783. Accessed April. 18, 2013.
- Schauner S, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia in children: A look at the IDSA guidelines. The Journal of Family Practice. 2013;62:9. Accessed April 19, 2013.
- Attridge RT, et al. Health care-associated pneumonia: An evidence-based review. The American Journal of Medicine. 2011;124:689. Accessed April 18, 2013.
- Hunter JD. Ventilator associated pneumonia. BMJ. 2012;344:e3325. Accessed April 19, 2013.
- Dockrell DH, et al. Pneumococcal pneumonia: Mechanisms of infection and resolution. Chest. 2012;142:482. Accessed April 18, 2013.
- Reynolds RH, et al. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient. The British Journal of Radiology. 2010;83:998. Accessed April 18, 2013.
- Rosenow EC (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 23, 2013.