RisksBy Mayo Clinic staff
A stem cell transplant poses many risks of complications, some potentially fatal. The risk can depend on many factors, including the type of blood disorder, the type of transplant, and the age and health of the person. Although some people experience few problems with a transplant, others may develop complications that may require treatment or hospitalization. Some complications could even be life-threatening.
Complications that can arise with a stem cell transplant include:
- Graft-versus-host disease (allogeneic transplant only)
- Stem cell (graft) failure
- Organ injury
- New cancers
Your doctor can explain your risk of complications from a stem cell transplant. Together you can weigh the risks and benefits to decide whether a stem cell transplant is right for you.
Graft-versus-host disease: A potential risk when stem cells come from donors
If you're undergoing a transplant that will use stem cells from a donor (allogeneic stem cell transplant), you may be at risk of graft-versus-host disease. This condition occurs when a donor's transplanted stem cells attack your body. Graft-versus-host disease can be mild or severe. It can occur soon after your transplant or months to years later.
Graft-versus-host disease can affect any organ, commonly the skin (rash, often like sunburn), gut (mouth sores, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting), liver (jaundice or yellowing of the skin), lungs (blocked airways) or eyes (irritation and light sensitivity). It can lead to chronic disability due to organ injury or infections and can be life-threatening. Your doctor will monitor you closely for signs and symptoms of graft-versus-host disease.
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