CausesBy Mayo Clinic staff
Stomach polyps form in response to swelling (inflammation) or other damage to the lining of the stomach. The most common types of stomach polyps are:
- Hyperplastic polyps, which form as a reaction to chronic inflammation in the cells that line the inside of the stomach. Hyperplastic polyps are most common in people with stomach inflammation (gastritis). This association may be related to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a type of bacteria that infects the inner lining of the stomach. Most hyperplastic polyps are unlikely to become stomach cancer. But hyperplastic polyps larger than about 3/4 inch (2 centimeters) in diameter have a greater risk of becoming cancerous.
Fundic gland polyps, which form from the glandular cells on the inside lining of the stomach. Fundic gland polyps which occur in people with a rare, inherited syndrome called familial adenomatous polyposis are removed because those polyps can become cancerous.
Fundic gland polyps are common among people who regularly take certain medications to reduce stomach acid (proton pump inhibitors). Fundic gland polyps aren't a cause for concern for these people unless they're larger than 2/5 inch (1 centimeter) in diameter. The cancer risk in these large polyps is very small, but some doctors recommend discontinuing proton pump inhibitors or removing the polyp or both.
- Adenomas, which also form from the glandular cells on the inside lining of the stomach. Adenomas are the least common type of stomach polyp, but the most likely type to become stomach cancer. Adenomas are associated with stomach inflammation and familial adenomatous polyposis.
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