- With Mayo Clinic nutritionist
Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D.read biographyclose window
Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D.Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D.
As a specialty editor for the nutrition and healthy eating guide, Katherine Zeratsky helps you sort through the facts and figures, the fads and the hype to learn more about nutrition and diet.
A Marinette, Wis., native, Katherine is certified in dietetics by the state of Minnesota and the American Dietetic Association. She has been with Mayo Clinic since 1999.
She is active in nutrition-related curriculum and course development in wellness nutrition at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., and nutrition education related to weight management and practical applications of nutrition-related lifestyle changes.
Other areas of interest include food and nutrition for all life stages, active lifestyles and the culinary arts.
She graduated from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, served a dietetic internship at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, and worked as a registered dietitian and health risk counselor at ThedaCare of Appleton, Wis., before joining the Mayo Clinic staff.
Nutrition basics (31)
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- Water softeners: How much sodium do they add?
- Diet soda: Is it bad for you?
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Healthy diets (11)
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Healthy cooking (7)
- When the heat is on, which oil should you use?
- Moldy cheese: Is it OK to eat?
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Healthy menus and shopping strategies (8)
- White whole-wheat bread: Is it nutritious?
- Sodium nitrate in meat: Heart disease risk factor?
- Brominated vegetable oil: Why is BVO in my drink?
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Nutritional supplements (18)
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Thanksgiving turkey: Can you cook it frozen?
Can I safely cook a frozen Thanksgiving turkey without thawing it first?
from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D.
Yes, you can safely cook a frozen Thanksgiving turkey — but with a few restrictions. Keep these factors in mind when cooking a frozen Thanksgiving turkey:
- Cooking method. You can cook the bird in the oven, but don't grill, smoke, microwave or deep-fry a frozen Thanksgiving turkey. Grilling and deep-frying use higher temperatures that will quickly cook and char the bird on the outside but leave the inside undone or only partially cooked, increasing the risk of foodborne illness. Smoking generally uses temperatures that are too low and take too long for the frozen turkey to fully cook, also increasing the risk of food poisoning. Microwaving also isn't a safe option because it cooks a frozen bird unevenly. Oven bags aren't recommended for frozen turkeys because they can be unsafe — at some point you will need to remove the giblets, and contaminated juices may be spilled or scalding steam can burn you.
- Cooking time. It takes longer to cook a frozen Thanksgiving turkey. To determine the approximate cooking time for a frozen Thanksgiving turkey, follow this guideline from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA): Take the recommended cooking time for a thawed Thanksgiving turkey and add 50 percent of that time to the original time. You can find an approximate cooking time either on the turkey's label directions or an online timetable for oven roasting whole turkeys. For example, a Thanksgiving turkey that should take about five hours to roast if already thawed will take about seven hours and 30 minutes to roast if frozen.
- Stuffing. Cooking a stuffed turkey can be tricky, whether frozen or thawed. The stuffing must reach at least 165 degrees Fahrenheit to be safely eaten. The USDA recommends buying a pre-stuffed frozen turkey only if it displays the USDA or state mark of inspection on the packaging, which indicates that the turkey has been processed under controlled conditions. Don't try to thaw a pre-stuffed turkey before cooking. Doing so takes too long and increases the risk of foodborne illness.
- Giblets. A whole Thanksgiving turkey usually has a giblet package tucked inside. It's difficult to remove a giblet package from a fully frozen turkey. So carefully remove the package with tongs or forks when the Thanksgiving turkey has sufficiently defrosted during cooking. Then continue to cook the giblet package separately. If the giblets are wrapped in plastic and the plastic bag melts, harmful chemicals may spread from the plastic into both the turkey and the giblets. If you suspect that a plastic bag has melted inside the turkey, you must discard both the entire turkey and the giblets. If the giblets were paper wrapped before being inserted into the turkey during processing, they can cook safely inside the bird.
- Safety. Remember that roasting time is approximate, so check on your Thanksgiving turkey often as it cooks in the oven to make sure it's reaching a safe temperature. Periodically insert a food thermometer in the innermost part of the turkey thigh and the thickest part of the turkey breast. For safe consumption, roast the entire Thanksgiving turkey — and stuffing — at least to an internal temperature of 165 F.
White whole-wheat bread: Is it nutritious?
- Poultry preparation: Let's talk turkey — A consumer guide to safely roasting a turkey. U.S. Department of Agriculture. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/Lets_Talk_Turkey/index.asp. Accessed Aug. 18, 2010.
- Poultry preparation: Turkey — Alternate routes to the table. U.S. Department of Agriculture. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Turkey_Alt_Routes/index.asp. Accessed Aug. 18, 2010.
- Nelson JK (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 1, 2010.
- Zeratsky KA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 1, 2010.