SymptomsBy Mayo Clinic staff
Although children with typhoid fever sometimes become sick suddenly, signs and symptoms are more likely to develop gradually — often appearing one to three weeks after exposure to the disease.
1st week of illness
Once signs and symptoms do appear, you're likely to experience:
- Fever, that starts low and increases daily, often to as high as 103 or 104 F (39.4 or 40 C)
- Weakness and fatigue
- Dry cough
- Loss of appetite
- Abdominal pain
- Diarrhea or constipation
2nd week of illness
If you don't receive treatment for typhoid fever, you may enter a second stage during which you become very ill and experience:
- Continuing high fever
- Either diarrhea or severe constipation
- Considerable weight loss
- Extremely distended abdomen
3rd week of illness
By the third week, you may:
- Become delirious
- Lie motionless and exhausted with your eyes half-closed in what's known as the typhoid state
Life-threatening complications often develop at this time.
4th week of illness
Improvement may come slowly during the fourth week. Your fever is likely to decrease gradually until your temperature returns to normal in another week to 10 days. But signs and symptoms can return up to two weeks after your fever has subsided.
When to see a doctor
See a doctor immediately if you suspect you have typhoid fever. If you become ill while traveling in a foreign country, call the U.S. Consulate for a list of doctors. Better yet, find out in advance about medical care in the areas you'll visit, and carry a list of the names, addresses and phone numbers of recommended doctors.
If you develop signs and symptoms after you return home, consider consulting a doctor who focuses on international travel medicine or infectious diseases. A specialist may be able to recognize and treat your illness more quickly than can a doctor who isn't trained in these areas.
- Brunette GW, et al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2012. Atlanta, Ga.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 2012. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2010/chapter-2/typhoid-paratyphoid-fever.aspx. Accessed April 26, 2012.
- Typhoid fever. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/typhoid_fever/. Accessed April 18, 2012.
- Maurice J. A first step in bringing typhoid fever out of the closet. The Lancet. 2012;379:699.
- Goldman L, et al. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-1604-7..00316-X&isbn=978-1-4377-1604-7&sid=1301718288&uniqId=331385541-5#4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-1604-7..00316-X. Accessed April 26, 2012.
- Bope ET, et al. Conn's Current Therapy. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/linkTo?type=bookHome&eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4557-0738-6..C2009-0-38985-0--TOP&isbn=978-1-4557-0738-6&uniqId=331385541-3. Accessed April 26, 2012.
- Mayer CA, et al. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Australian Family Physician. 2010;39:847.
- Crump JA, et al. Global trends in typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2010;50:241.
- Humphries RL, et al. Current Diagnosis & Treatment Emergency Medicine. 7th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2011. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=55748503. Accessed April 27, 2012.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=9113180. Accessed April 27, 2012.