Risk factorsBy Mayo Clinic staff
Factors that might increase the risk of undescended testicle in a newborn include:
- Low birth weight
- Premature birth
- Family history of undescended testicle or other problems of genital development
- Conditions of the fetus that can restrict growth, such as Down syndrome or an abdominal wall defect
- Alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy
- Cigarette smoking by the mother or exposure to secondhand smoke
- Obesity in the mother
- Diabetes in the mother — type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes
- Parents' exposure to some pesticides
- Ashley RA, et al. Cryptorchidism: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Urologic Clinics of North America. 2010;37:183.
- Cooper CS, et al. Undescended testes (cryptorchidism) in children and adolescents. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 15, 2013.
- Kliegman RM, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1608/0.html. Accessed Feb. 15, 2013.
- Lao OB, et al. Pediatric inguinal hernias, hydroceles, and undescended testicles. Surgical Clinics of North America. 2012;92:487.
- Nippoldt TB (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 28, 2013.
- Granberg CF (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 28, 2013.