Risk factorsBy Mayo Clinic staff
Risk factors for vesicoureteral reflux include:
- Race. White children appear to have three times the risk of vesicoureteral reflux that black children do.
- Sex. Generally, girls have about double the risk of having this condition as boys do. The exception is for vesicoureteral reflux that's present at birth, which is more common in boys.
- Age. Infants and children up to age 2 are more likely to have vesicoureteral reflux than older children are.
- Family history. Primary vesicoureteral reflux tends to run in families. Children whose parents had the condition are at higher risk of developing it. Siblings of children who have the condition also are at higher risk, so your doctor may recommend screening for the siblings of a child with primary vesicoureteral reflux.
- Vesicoureteral reflux. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/Kudiseases/pubs/vesicoureteralreflux/. Accessed June 3, 2011.
- Ureteral anomalies. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/print/sec19/ch290/ch290c.html. Accessed June 3, 2011.
- Urinary tract infection in adults. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. http://www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/utiadult/. Accessed June 3, 2011.
- McLorie G, et al. Presentation, diagnosis, and clinical course of vesicoureteral reflux. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed May 25, 2011.
- Fever. American Academy of Pediatrics Healthy Children. http://www.healthychildren.org/english/tips-tools/symptom-checker/pages/Fever.aspx. Accessed June 5, 2011.
- Elder JS. Vesicoureteral reflux. In: Kliegman RM, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Saunders Elsevier; 2007. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1608/0.html. Accessed June 3, 2011.
- McLorie G, et al. Management of vesicoureteral reflux. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed May 25, 2011.