CausesBy Mayo Clinic staff
Vomiting blood may be caused by:
- Acute liver failure
- Alcoholic hepatitis
- Benign tumors of the stomach or esophagus
- Defects in gastrointestinal tract blood vessels
- Dieulafoy's lesion (an artery that protrudes through the stomach wall)
- Duodenitis (inflammation in the first part of the small intestine)
- Esophageal cancer
- Esophageal varices
- Esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus)
- Gastric erosions (breakdown of tissue lining the stomach)
- Gastric varices (enlarged veins in the stomach)
- Mallory-Weiss tear (tear in the esophagus associated with pressure caused by vomiting or coughing)
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- Pancreatic cancer
- Peptic ulcer
- Portal hypertension (high blood pressure in the portal vein)
- Prolonged or vigorous vomiting
- Stomach cancer
In infants and young children, vomiting blood may also result from:
- Birth defects
- Blood clotting disorders
- Milk allergy
- Swallowed blood, such as from the nose
- Swallowed object
Causes shown here are commonly associated with this symptom. Work with your doctor or other health care professional for an accurate diagnosis.
- Hematemesis. In: Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2011: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2011. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05610-6..C2009-0-38600-6--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-05610-6&about=true&uniqId=230100505-53. Accessed March 11, 2011.
- Bjorkman DJ. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage and occult gastrointestinal bleeding. In: Goldman L, et al. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/191371208-2/0/1492/0.html#. Accessed March 11, 2011.
- Bleeding in the digestive tract. National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bleeding/index.htm. Accessed March 11, 2011.
- Jutabha R, et al. Uncommon causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed March 11, 2011.
- Villa X. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed March 11, 2011.
- Wilkinson JM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 28, 2011.