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Beans and other legumes: Types and cooking tipsBy Mayo Clinic staff
Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/legumes/NU00260
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Beans and other legumes: Types and cooking tips
This guide describes common types of beans and legumes, tips for preparing them, and ways to add more legumes to your meals and snacks.By Mayo Clinic staff
Legumes — a class of vegetables that includes beans, peas and lentils — are among the most versatile and nutritious foods available. Legumes are typically low in fat, contain no cholesterol, and are high in folate, potassium, iron and magnesium. They also contain beneficial fats and soluble and insoluble fiber. A good source of protein, legumes can be a healthy substitute for meat, which has more fat and cholesterol.
If you want to add more beans and other legumes to your diet, but you aren't clear about what's available and how to prepare them, this guide can help.
Type of legumes
Many supermarkets and food stores stock a wide variety of legumes — both dried and canned. Below are several of the more common types and their typical uses.
|Type of legume||Common uses|
Adzuki beansAlso known as field peas or red oriental beans
|Soups, sweet bean paste, and Japanese and Chinese dishes|
Anasazi beansAlso known as Jacob's cattle beans
|Soups and Southwestern dishes; can be used in recipes that call for pinto beans|
Black beansAlso known as turtle beans
|Soups, stews, rice dishes and Latin American cuisines|
Black-eyed peasAlso known as cowpeas
|Salads, casseroles, fritters and Southern dishes|
ChickpeasAlso known as garbanzo or ceci beans
|Casseroles, hummus, minestrone soup, and Spanish and Indian dishes|
EdamameAlso known as green soybeans
|Snacks, salads, casseroles and rice dishes|
Fava beansAlso known as broad or horse beans
|Stews and side dishes|
|Lentils||Soups, stews, salads, side dishes and Indian dishes|
Lima beansAlso known as butter or Madagascar beans
|Succotash, casseroles, soups and salads|
|Red kidney beans||Stews, salads, chili and rice dishes|
Soy nutsAlso known as roasted soybeans or soya beans
|Snacks or garnish for salads|
Dried beans and legumes, with the exceptions of black-eyed peas and lentils, require soaking in room-temperature water, a step that rehydrates them for more even cooking. Before soaking, pick through the beans, discarding any discolored or shriveled ones or any foreign matter. Depending on how much time you have, choose one of the following soaking methods:
- Slow soak. In a stockpot, cover 1 pound dried beans with 10 cups water. Cover and refrigerate 6 to 8 hours or overnight.
- Hot soak. In a stockpot, bring 10 cups of water to a boil. Add 1 pound dried beans and return to a boil. Remove from the heat, cover tightly and set aside at room temperature for 2 to 3 hours.
- Quick soak. In a stockpot, bring 10 cups of water to a boil. Add 1 pound dried beans and return to a boil. Boil 2 to 3 minutes. Cover and set aside at room temperature for 1 hour.
- Gas-free soak. In a stockpot, place 1 pound of beans in 10 or more cups of boiling water. Boil for 2 to 3 minutes. Then cover and set aside overnight. The next day 75 to 90 percent of the indigestible sugars that cause gas will have dissolved into the soaking water.
After soaking, rinse beans and add to a stockpot. Cover the beans with three times their volume of water. Add herbs or spices as desired. Bring to a boil. Then reduce the heat and simmer gently, uncovered, stirring occasionally, until tender. The cooking time depends on the type of bean, but start checking after 45 minutes. Add more water if the beans become uncovered. Other tips:
- Add salt or acidic ingredients, such as vinegar, tomatoes or juice, near the end of the cooking time, when the beans are just tender. If these ingredients are added too early, they can make the beans tough and slow the cooking process.
- Beans are done when they can be easily mashed between two fingers or with a fork.
- To freeze cooked beans for later use, immerse them in cold water until cool, then drain well and freeze.
- One pound of dried beans yields about 5 or 6 cups cooked beans. A 15-ounce can of beans equals about 1 1/2 cups cooked beans, drained.
No time to spare?
Lentils, split peas and black-eyed peas don't need to be soaked. In addition, some legumes are "quick-cooking" — meaning they have already been pre-soaked and redried and don't need extra soaking. Finally, canned legumes make quick additions to dishes that don't require long simmering. Just be sure to rinse prepared and canned legumes to remove some of the sodium added during processing.
Adding more legumes to your diet
Consider these ways to incorporate more legumes into your meals and snacks:
- Prepare soups, stews and casseroles that feature legumes.
- Use pureed beans as the basis for dips and spreads.
- Add chickpeas or black beans to salads. If you typically buy a salad at work and no beans are available, bring your own from home in a small container.
- Snack on a handful of soy nuts rather than on chips or crackers.
If you can't find a particular type of legume in the store, you can easily substitute one type of legume for another. For example, pinto and black beans are good substitutes for red kidney beans. And cannellini, lima beans and navy beans are easily interchangeable. Experiment with what types of legumes you like best in your recipes to make your meals and snacks both nutritious and interesting.
Reducing the gas factor
Beans and other legumes can lead to the formation of intestinal gas. Here are several ways to reduce the flatulence-inducing quality of legumes:
- Change the water several times during soaking. Don't use the soaking water to cook the beans. The water will have absorbed some of the gas-producing indigestible sugars.
- Try using canned beans — the canning process eliminates some of the gas-producing sugars.
- Simmer beans slowly until they are tender. This makes them easier to digest.
- Try digestive aids, such as Beano, when eating legume dishes to help reduce the amount of gas they produce.
As you add more beans and legumes to your diet, be sure to drink enough water and exercise regularly to help your gastrointestinal system handle the increase in dietary fiber.
- Vegetable of the month: Beans. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.fruitsandveggiesmatter.gov/month/beans.html. Accessed April 7, 2011.
- Zeratsky KA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 7, 2011.
- Larousse Gastronomique. New York, N.Y: Clarkson Potter; 2009:610.
- Gourmet sleuth dictionary. http://www.gourmetsleuth.com/Dictionary.aspx Accessed April 8, 2011.