In-depth

Causes

Boosting self-esteem

Huntington's disease

Complications

Suicide and suicidal thoughts

Coping and support

Mental health: Overcoming the stigma of mental illness

Lifestyle and home remedies

Meditation

Risk factors

Stress symptoms

Aches and pains, irritability, and crying spells may have an unexpected source — stress. Recognize these and other signs and symptoms so that you can take action.

Symptoms

Fatigue

Tests and diagnosis

Urinalysis

Treatments and drugs

Electroconvulsive therapy

Family therapy

Psychotherapy

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Feb. 15, 2017
References
  1. Reilly-Harrington NA et al. A tool to predict suicidal ideation and behavior in bipolar disorder: The Concise Health Risk Tracking Self-Report. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2016;192:212.
  2. Bipolar and related disorders. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://www.psychiatryonline.org. Accessed Dec. 2, 2016.
  3. Bipolar disorder. National Institute of Mental Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/bipolar-disorder/index.shtml. Accessed Dec. 2, 2016.
  4. Bipolar disorder. National Institute of Mental Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/bipolar-disorder-tr-15-3679/index.shtml. Accessed Dec. 2, 2016.
  5. Bipolar disorder in children and teens. National Institute of Mental Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/bipolar-disorder-in-children-and-teens-qf-15-6380/index.shtml. Accessed Dec. 2, 2016.
  6. Bipolar disorder. National Alliance on Mental Illness. https://www.nami.org/Learn-More/Mental-Health-Conditions/Bipolar-Disorder. Accessed Dec. 2, 2016.
  7. AskMayoExpert. Bipolar disorder. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2016. Accessed Dec. 2, 2016.
  8. Suppes T, et al. Bipolar disorder in adults: Clinical features. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 2, 2016.
  9. Axelson D, et al. Pediatric bipolar disorder: Overview of choosing treatment. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 2, 2016.
  10. Birmaher B. Pediatric bipolar disorder: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and course. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 2, 2016.
  11. Picardi A, et al. Psychotherapy of mood disorders. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health. 2014;10:140.
  12. Fountoulakis KN, et al. The International College of Neuro-Psychopharmacology (CINP) treatment guidelines for bipolar disorder in adults (CINP-BP-2017), part 2: Review, grading of the evidence and a precise algorithm. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. In press. http://ijnp.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/11/05/ijnp.pyw100.long. Accessed Dec. 6, 2016.
  13. Beyer JL, et al. Nutrition and bipolar depression. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2016;39:75.
  14. Qureshi NA, et al. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: A literature review. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2013;9:639.
  15. Sansone RA, et al. Getting a knack for NAC: N-acetyl-cysteine. Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience. 2011;8:10.
  16. Sylvia LG, et al. Nutrient-based therapies for bipolar disorder: A systematic review. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 2013;82:10.
  17. Hall-Flavin DK (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Dec. 27, 2016.
  18. Krieger CA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 4, 2017.
  19. Post RM. Bipolar disorder in adults: Choosing maintenance treatment. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 4, 2016.
  20. Janicak PG. Bipolar disorder in adults and lithium: Pharmacology, administration, and side effects. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 4, 2017.
  21. Stovall J. Bipolar disorder in adults: Pharmacotherapy for acute mania and hypomania. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 4, 2017.