In-depth

Risk factors

Diabetes

Diabetes affects how your body uses blood sugar. Too much blood sugar over long periods can cause serious health problems, but treatments are available.

June 24, 2016
References
  1. Klein CL, et al. Patient selection for and immunologic issues relating to kidney-pancreas transplantation in diabetes mellitus. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 21, 2016.
  2. Klein C, et al. Benefits and complications associated with kidney-pancreas transplantation in diabetes mellitus. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 21, 2016.
  3. Pancreas transplantation. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/transplantation/pancreas-transplantation.html. Accessed March 21, 2016.
  4. Robertson RP. Pancreas and islet transplantation in diabetes mellitus. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 21, 2016.
  5. Health after transplantation. American Society of Transplantation. http://www.healthytransplant.com/health_maintenance/health_after_transplantation.aspx Accessed March 22, 2016.
  6. Preparing for the transplant. American Society of Transplantation. http://www.healthytransplant.com/health_maintenance/preparing_for_transplant.aspx. Accessed March 22, 2016.
  7. Kidney-pancreas transplant. National Kidney Foundation. http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/kidpantx.cfm. Accessed March 22, 2016.
  8. Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients 2012 Annual Data Report: Pancreas. Health Resources and Services Administration. http://srtr.transplant.hrsa.gov/annual_reports/2012. Accessed April 12, 2016.
  9. Chakkera HA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona. April 12, 2016.
  10. Side effects. UNOS Transplant Living. http://transplantliving.org/after-the-transplant/medications/side-effects/. Accessed March 22, 2016.
  11. Pancreas transplant. National Kidney Foundation. https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/pancreastx. Accessed March 22, 2016.
  12. Heilman RL, et al. Immunosuppression in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. Drugs. 2010;70:793.
  13. Kandaswamy R, et al. Pancreas. American Journal of Transplantation. 2016;16(suppl 2):47.
  14. Pancreas. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. https://optn.transplant.hrsa.gov/data/organ-datasource/pancreas/. Accessed March 23, 2016.
  15. Barbara Woodward Lips Patient Education Center. Pancreas transplant. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2013.
  16. Pancreas. PubMed Health. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMHT0015631/. Accessed April 7, 2016.
  17. Guidance for industry: Considerations for allogeneic pancreatic islet cell products. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/CellularandGeneTherapy/ucm182440.htm. Accessed March 28, 2016.
  18. Pancreatic islet transplantation. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/Diabetes/pancreatic-islet-transplantation/Pages/index.aspx. Accessed March 28, 2016.
  19. Kudva YC, et al. Comprehensive immune monitoring reveals profound immunological changes in pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplant recipients. Human Immunology. 2013;74:738.
  20. Reddy KS, et al. Alemtuzumab with rapid steroid taper in simultaneous kidney and pancreas transplantation: Comparison to induction with antithymocyte globulin. Transplantation Proceedings. 2010;42:2006.
  21. Riggin ER. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 6, 2016.